Mengajar Ngaji di Zaman Sekarang

Mengajar ngaji adalah tugas mulia dan menarik. Kemuliaan orang dalam tugas ini karena ia jelas disebut dalam wawarah Nabi saw. Dalam salah satu hadis Nabi saw, menyampaikan kepada kita: Khairukum man ta’allamal qur’ana wa ‘allamahu. Artinya, ‘Sebaik-baik kalian adalah orang yang belajar kitab Al-Qur’an dan kemudian mengajarkan kitab itu kepada orang lain.’

Pada masa penjajahan, mengajar Al-Qur’an tentu berbeda dengan masa Indonesia merdeka, begitu pula dengan ketika kita sudah di era mengisi kemerdekaan. Pada masa penjajahan, mengajar Al-Qur’an sulit digambarkan dengan persis. Paling tidak untuk di tanah jawa, kondisi masyarakat masih sulit menerima pengajaran secara istikamah. Sebab, disamping kebebasan mengajarkannya masih dalam masalah, tempatnya juga tidak akan bisa diperlakukan dengan tetap, lampu penerangpun masih dalam kondisinya yang sangat sederhana. Misalnya, masih memakai lampu penerang yang menggunakan migas. Lampunya tidak menggunakan semprong, sehingga setelah ngaji lubang hidung kebanyakan hitam pekat terkena hirupan asap lampu. Terkadang, metode pengajaran pun masih dengan cara sedikit kasar yang menjadikan para santri mesti hati-hati.

Walau masih seperti itu, tidak jarang cara itu melahirkan para pengaji Al- Qur’an yang beramal dengan Al-Qur’an bagi kehidupan. Alumni santri suka mengkhatamkan Al-Quran minimalnya setiap bulan. Dan begitu khatam dan fasih dalam mengaji, para alumni menularkan ilmunya kepada santri lain. Kandang juga menjadi guru mengaji yang menu- larkan ilmu yang dimilikinya kepada lainnya.

Begitu Indonesia merdeka, minimal kita mengenal dua pola mengajar ngaji. Pola pertama, ini berlangsung sampai masa Indonesia mengenal lampu listrik. Polanya masih belum begitu jauh berbeda dari yang pertama. Di pelbagai tempat, seperti di masjid-masjid, di mushalla-mushalla, termasuk di rumah-rumah, Al-Qur’an diajarkan masih sederhana. Al-Qur’annya menggunakan metode baghdadiyah. Para murid diajari membaca dari alif sampai ya; ada a-i-u; ba-bi-bu; an-in-un; ban-bin-bun; ada juga sukun. Mereka umumnya diberi hafalan surat-surat pendek, dari wadh dhuha hingga An-Nas. Selain belajar ngaji, para santri juga diajari ilmu-ilmu fardhu lain, dan dalam beberapa hal juga fardhu kifayah. Di tempat-tempat tertentu mereka juga diajari ilmu akhlak. Pola kedua, para peserta sudah menggunakan lampu listrik. Umumnya mereka sudah tidak sesulit yang pertama karena mereka tidak sulit dalam memenuhi kebutuhan lampu penerang. Kondisinya sudah semakin praktis. Hanya kadang-kadang, dalam disiplin tidak seteguh yang pertama. Kewajiban mengisi minyak gas yang sudah terjawab oleh kewajibam cetat-cetet skakel, menjadikan kepatuhan kepada disiplin tidak tertangani dengan baik. Walau kondisi demikian tidak sama di berbagai tempat, namun tidak terlalu jauh berbeda.

Begitu Indonesia sudah merdeka di atas 40 tahun, mengajar Al-Qur’an sudah jauh ber- beda. Di beberapa tempat di Indonesia, sudah mengakomudasi kebutuhan modern. Tidak cukup lagi peserta didik hanya diberi sajian materi dengan metode baghdadiyah. Mereka sudah berpikir bagaimana peserta didik dapat membaca cepat, tapi tidak berat. Peserta didik diusahakan dekenalkan dengan cara membaca yang cepat, lancar, namun senang. Maka di era ini, metode deduktif dan induktif membaca Al-Qur’an sudah diper- kenalkan.

Lahirlah pada masa ini pengajaran Al-Qur’an dengan metode modern. Sejak dengan Metode Iqra’, Metode Qiraati, dan Metode Al-Barqi yang lebih memudahkan. Cara belajar nya pun banyak yang ditempuh secara klasikal. Karena antara pengajar dan peserta didik begitu dekat hubungannya, maka dengan metode yang terakhi, peserta didik tidak terlalu memakan waktu untuk lulus dari nyantri.

Kalau model yang pertama dulu, mereka lulus bisa dalam waktu tahunan, metode yang terbaru ini bisa dicapai dalam beberapa bulan. Tergantung ke tekunan dalam menjalan- kan sistem yang sudah diterapkan.

Mengajar ngaji adalah tugas agama. Santri di zaman ini, tidak hanya sekadar diberi pengajaran Al-Qur’an, ilmu-ilmu fardhu ain dan fardhu kifayah, tapi mereka sudah layak diperkenalkan kepada banyak metode lain dalam belajar dan mengajar Al-Qur’an. Karena di era ini, terutama di era teknologi dan informasi banyak metode-metode kreatif yang dicipta dalam waktu dekat, maka ketrampilan pengejar juga sudah ditantang. Bahkan hingga dalam kreasinya dalam menjawab kebutuhan zaman. (Erfan Soebahar; 24-8-2013)

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