Melestarikan Kebermaknaan Syawwal

Syawwal kini telah meluas gaungnya dalam peradaban. Dari sudut waktu, hal itu terutama bermula sejak termaktub di kalender hijri. Jika dalam tampilan lama orang enggan menyebutnya, hal itu beda dengan dalam kemasan barunya, yang ditunggu kehadirannya. Tidak keliru baik pada dekade awal dari perubahan statusnya, maupun pada dekade belakangan, manakala orang merindukan kapan Syawwal datang menjelang. Sebab kedatangan Syawwal membuka lompatan. Ia mendekatkan potensi dengan kenyataan, seperti mudahnya  Ramadan bergulir ke Syawwal.Dari situ, untuk bersilaturahmi, bermusyawarah, maupun membuat peristiwa, tinggal menatap dengan tepat almanak hijri.

Berada di bulan Syawwal masa doeloe tidak senyaman sekarang. Salah-salah orang doeloe bisa berdiri lemas kalau memasuki Syawwal; segalanya diliputi “sial”. Bagi laki-laki, memasuki pintu Syawwal otaknya enggan mikir, sebab rasa Syawwal tinggal ibarat nerima ing pandum. Pasalnya, begitu terlihat ekor unta naik, jangan coba mengumbar birahi. Ia bisa dicap menyalahi tradisi yang tak lain dari wajib ngerem, karena waktu pantangan itu.

Dari Sial ke Makna Peningkatan

Sesukar itukah kaum Adam di era Jahiliyah berhadapan dengan bulan Syawwal? Mengapa mereka begitu sial di bulan ke-10 almanak masa dahoeloe itu?

Sudah dimaklumi bahwa sebelum Islam datang, almanak Jahili konon sudah mengenal bulan Syawwal. Di zaman Jahiliyah, jika ekor unta betina “naik” karena sedang bunting, itu suatu pertanda, sudah jatuh masa bulan Syawwal. Kondisi itu berisi isyarat, bahwa rahim sang unta tidak mau dibuahi sang jantan. Itu alias “sial” bukan bagi lawan jenis.Tak ada makna lain se-petitis itu.

Ketika Islam datang, makna Syawwal yang berbau purno itu diadaptasi. Ekor unta betina yang naik tidak lagi bermakna natural. Naik ekor sudah bisa bermakna naik tingkatan, dari posisi bawah ke yang lebih tinggi. Bisa hingga ke posisi yang teratas.

Pemaknaan Syawwal telah resmi bergeser

Ia tidak sekadar berkutat di soal ekor unta yang “mengerem nafsu birahi.” Terutama si jantan yang ingin beraktivitas. Tetapi sudah beralih ke makna humanis, yaitu “peningkatan”.  Syawwal lalu bernuansa lebih prestatif.  

Pahala Puasa Total Silaturahmi, menempati deret awal peningkatan. Ditelisik dari sudut mana pun, Syawwal bisa terhubung dengan silaturrahmi. Tidak hanya vertikal, tetapi juga horizontal. Jika di bulan Ramadan silaturahmi dipenuhi aktivitas tempaan diri menuju hubungan vertikal. Maka di bulan Syawwal, hubungan sudah banyak me- nyamping. Dari hablun minallah ke hablun minannas. Dengan silaturahmi, suatu konsekwensi diperoleh: rezeki yang berkah, panjangnya usia, hingga kemantapan diri melangkah ke masa depan.

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Naik unta waktu haji ke-2 tahun 2005

Seiring derap zaman, bentuk silaturahmi berkembang. Jika di masa awal, silaturahmi berbentuk bertatap muka. Maka es-em-es, jaringan sosial, dan paguyuban, merupakan pemekaran bentuk silaturahmi masa kini. Bahkan khas Indonesia, ada forum Halal Bihalal, berlangsung setahun sekali. Masih di suasana silaturahmi, di bulan Syawwal kita bisa bertemu dengan puasa lagi. Puasa Syawwal. Hanya dengan enam hari puasa, tapi pahalanya segunung.

Bayangkan, dengan nambah puasa enam hari, pahala puasa kita laksana setahun. Tiga puluh hari puasa Ramadhan setera pahala 300. Dan 6 hari puasa Syawwal, ditekel masing-masing 10, meraup pahala 60. Dijumlahkan 300 + 60 adalah setara 360 hari. luar biasa. Total pahalanya, lebih besar dari puasa Daud.

Takbir Memperkokoh Fitrah

Ungkapan takbir membesarkan asma Allah. Jika ungkapan menghebatkan Tuhan ini berkumandang di luar salat lima waktu,  juga  salat-salat sunnah, lalu bertakbir semalam di malam Idul Fitri, tentulah berpengaruh. Jelasnya, ia  membesarkan prestasi pembawanya dalam kehidupan. Bagi si shaim, bertakbir punya makna kesyukuran. Jika takbir dikumandangkan, yang mengandung makna bahwa kita ini kecil, menjadilah makna ini siap menyerap sikap besar.

Nyatanya hidup ini tidak terusan kecil. Tapi ada peluang ikhtiar penyempurnaan hingga mewujud hal besar. Ia memberdayakan diri, membuat diri berpengaruh dari bertakbir. Konsekwensinya, hadirlah dari shaim nuansa prestasi unggul, dari pribadi sederhana mencuat nilai pesona. Andaikan kondisi Ramadan sudah menyatu dalam diri, hingga ke pencegahan hal yang makruh atau menjauhi maksiat, maka kondisi fitrah jadi menyatu dengan diri. Dari sini, kemenangan shaim adalah dia seperti terlahir kembali dalam kehidupan nyata. Dosa-dosanya berampun. Dan ridha Allah Swt menyinari suasana fitri, yang mencuatkan kondisi diri terus meningkat dalam kehidupan.  

Pernikahan dan Torehan Historis

Dari uraian di atas tampak, bahwa pada era Islam tak ada lagi pantangan bagi melang sungkan pernikahan dan aktivitas historis di bulan Syawwal. Ekor unta naik, sekarang bisa bermakna pantangan unta jantan meluapkan maunya, tapi itu tidak untuk menyetop rasa mau manusia. Manusia dengan pasangan resminya, tetap boleh kontak intim dengan lawan jenis yang sah, yang bernilai terpuji. Konsep budhu’ adalah menyatakan sedekah perilaku itu, sabda Rasulullah.

Maka kini sudah banyak pasangan menikah di bulan Syawwal. Karena nikah itu terpuji, tidak lagi sial. Rasulullah saw memberi teladan. Pada 4 Syawwal dicatat sejarah, beliau menikah dengan Ummu Salamah. Juga di tanggal 17 Syawwal, beliau menikah dengan Aisyah r.a., tepatnya di hari  kelahiran ‘A’isyah binti Abu Bakar.

Tidak hanya itu. Sahabat ‘Ali bin Abi Thalib r.a. menikahi Sayyidah Fathimah az Zahra binti Muhammad saw, pada 29 Syawwal. Jadi di bulan Syawwal, sah saja kita ngunduh mantu, karena telah ada teladan dari orang-orang jitu.

Selain itu, aktivitas penting lain layak juga diukir sejarahnya di bulan Syawwal. Sebab tidak ada perbuatan sia-sia dari hari-hari kita di bulan ini. Hari kelahiran dan bersejarah bisa terjadi di bulan ini. Misalnya, 4 Syawwal tercatat sebagai kelahiran Husein bin Ali bin Abi Thalib, cucu Rasul saw. Tanggal 13 Syawwal, tercatat sebagai hari kelahiran Imam al-Bukhari. Tanggal 27 Syawwal, adalah Perjalanan Nabi Muhammad saw ke Thaif. Lainnya, 6 Syawwal adalah Perang Hunain; 18nya saat terjadinya Perang Handaq, kenangan historis kecerdasan Sahabat Salman al-Farisi, sang arsitek Muslim.

Khatimah

Kondisi di atas menegaskan Syawwal yang bermakna peningkatan. Sekalipun dari data sejarah terjadi peristiwa yang menimpa Nabi saw dalam perjalanan ke Thaif, namun hal itu bukan sebab menerjang nakhas naiknya ekor unta.

Peristiwanya lebih sebagai ujian bagi penyebar ajaran: dalam kondisi apapun akan tetap berhadapan dengan perlawanan terutama dari kaum awam yang belum tahu ihwal pencerahan. Dengan demikian, boleh saja suatu inisiatif dilakukan, dipersegar, bahkan dilestarikan pada monentum Syawwal. Bisa berupa kerja-kerja kolaboratif yang mungkin belum berangkat dari i’tikad baik dari sesama; atau menyusun tatanan bersama yang masih ditindiki egois lokal sedang nawaitunya buat institusi ke depan; atau mungkin pekerjaan lain yang sudah terencana rapi tapi tak kunjung mewujud karena berhadapan suara hati sendiri.

Dari momentum Syawwallah sebanarnya sebuah tekad jitu bisa dimulai (Prof Erfan Soebahar: Pernah dimuat di SKM Amanat; Rubrik Mimbar; Tahun 2012. Semoga juga Manfaat)

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123 thoughts on “Melestarikan Kebermaknaan Syawwal

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