Imam Nawawi Banten: Kelahiran, Karya, Murid, Pemakaman

Imam Nawawi al-Bantani al-Jawi adalah nama tokoh yang kita hadirkan pada kesempatan ini. Beliau lahir di Desa Tanara, Kecamatan Tirtayasa, Serang, Banten pada 1813. Kelebihan tokoh ini, beliau adalah tokoh penulis kitab kuning Indonesia, yang karyanya menjadi rujukan di berbagai pesantren baik di tanah air, maupun di luar negeri. Nama lengkap beliau adalah Abu Abdullah al-Mu’thi Muhammad Nawawi bin Umar al-Tanari al-Bantani al-Jawi.

Sejak kecil, putera K.H. Umar bin Arabi ini diarahkan oleh ayahnya untuk menjadi seorang alim. Untuk itu, ayah beliau menyerahkan Nawawi kepada K.H. Sahal, tokoh alim terkenal di Banten. Setelah belajar bersama K.H. Sahal, Nawawi belajar kepada K.H. Yusuf, seorang tokoh, alim di Purwakarta.

Ayah Nawawi adalah pejabat penghulu. Dari silsilahnya, terbaca bahwa Nawawi merupakan keturunan sultan ke-12 dari Maulana Syarif Hidayatullah (Sunan Gunung Jati, Cirebon), yaitu keturunan putra Maulana Hasanuddin (Sultan Banten I) yang bernama Sunyararas (Tajul ‘Arsy).

Syeich Imam Nawai Al-Bantany

Foto Imam Nawawi al-Bantani

Pada usia 15 tahun, Nawawi pergi ke Mekkah bersama dua saudaranya untuk menunaikan ibadah haji. Namun, setelah musim haji usai, ia tidak langsung pulang ke Indonesia, beliau memilih tinggal di Mekkah. Di negeri ini, beliau memperdalam agama Islam kepada para alim kelahiran Indonesia, seperti Syekh Ahmad Khatib Sambas, Abdul Ghani Bima, Yusuf Sumbulaweni, Syekh Nahrawi, Syekh Ahmad Dimyati, Ahmad Zaini Dahlan, Muhammad Khatib Hambali, dan Syekh Abdul Hamid Daghestani.

Tiga tahun Nawawi mencari ilmu dari dari para ahlinya di Mekkah. Setelah itu, beliau pulang ke Indonesia untuk memanfaatkan ilmu di pesantren ayahnya. Namun, suasana di tanah air ketika itu tidak dapat begitu kondusif bagi pengembangan ilmu sebab saat itu Indonesia sedang dijajah Belanda. Akhirnya, Nawawi kembali memilih kembali ke Mekkah dan menetap di Syi’ab ‘Ali.

Nawawi seorang yang cerdas dan sangat tekun. Itu yang membawa beliau cepat berkembang, dari seorang murid prestatif hingga menjadi tokoh terpandang di Masjidil Haram. Dari kepribadian yang menarik itu, maka menjadi penyebab beliau akhirnya menjadi salah satu tokoh di Masjid al-Haram menggantikan Syekh Ahmad Khatib Sambas, yang lazim dipanggil dengan panggilan Syekh Nawawi al-Bantani al-Jawi.

Dari pengalaman kealiman Nawawi, banyak orang Indonesia dan negara lain yang berguru kepadanya. Murid-murid yang berguru kepada Nawawi dari Indonesia antara lain adalah Mohammad Kholil Bangkalan Madura, Asnawi Kudus, Tubagus Bakri, Arsyad Thawil Banten, Hasyim Asy’ari dari Jombang. Beliau-beliau ini yang di kemudian hari menjadi tokoh-tokoh, kiai terkenal, yang kemudian menjadi para alim di Indonesia.

Selain cerdas di bidang ilmu, Nawawi dikenal sebagai tokoh yang tekun atau giat menulis kitab atau buku keagamaan. Dengan karya-karya tulisnya, ia ditempatkan sebagai Sayyid Ulama Hijaz, yang karya-karyanya menjadi bagian kurikulum pendidikan agama sejumlah pesantren di Indonesia, juga di Malaysia, Filipina, Thailand, juga di Timur Tengah.

Nawawi juga menerima julukan sebagai Imam Nawawi kedua. Nawawi pertama adalah penulis Syarah Shahih Muslim dan  kitab Dalil al-Falihin. Nama beliau tentu tetap Syekh Nawawi al-Bantani, bukan Imam Nawawi al-Dimasyqi.

 

Karya-karya imam nawawi

Banyak karya yang telah dihasilkan oleh Imam Nawawi, di antaranya dapat disebutkan di bawah ini.

1- al-Tsamar al-Yani’ah, syarah al-Riyadh al-Badi’ah

2- al-‘Aqd al-Tsamîn syarah Fath al-Mubin

3- Sullam al-Munajah syarah Safînah al-Shalah

4- Bahjah al-Wasail syarah al-Risalah al-Jami’ah bayn al-Usul wa al-Fiqh wa al-Tasawwuf

5- al-Tausyih atau Quwt al-Habib al-Gharib syarah Fath al-Qarib al-Mujib

6- Maraqi al-‘Ubudiyyah syarah Matan Bidayah al-Hidayah

7- Nashaih al-‘Ibad syarah al-Manbahatu ‘ala al-Isti’dad li yaum al-Mi’ad

8- Salalim al-Fadhla΄ syarah Mandhumah Hidayah al-Azkiya΄

9- Qami’u al-Thugyan syarah Mandhumah Syu’bu al-Iman

10- al-Tafsir al-Munir li al-Mu’alim al-Tanzil al-Mufassir ‘an wujuh mahasin al-Ta΄wil /Marah Labid 

11- Kasyf al-Maruthiyyah syarah Matan al-Jurumiyyah

12- Fath al-Ghafir al-Khathiyyah syarah Nazham al-Jurumiyyah musamma al-Kawakib al-Jaliyyah

13- Nur al-Zhalam ‘ala Mandhumah al-Musammah bi ‘Aqidah al-‘Awwam

14- Tanqih al-Qaul al-Hatsits syarah Lubab al-Hadits

15- Madarij al-Shu’ud syarah Maulid al-Barzanji

16- Targhîb al-Mustaqin syarah Mandhumah Maulid al-Barzanji

17- Fath al-Shamad al ‘Alam syarah Maulid Syarif al-‘Anam

18- Fath al-Majid syarah al-Durr al-Farid

19- Tîjan al-Darary syarah Matan al-Baijury

20- Fath al-Mujib syarah Mukhtashar al-Khathib

21- Muraqah Shu’ud al-Tashdiq syarah Sulam al-Taufiq

22- Kasyifah al-Saja syarah Safinah al-Naja

23- al-Futuhah al-Madaniyyah syarah al-Syu’b al-Imaniyyah

24- ‘Uqud al-Lujain fi Bayan Huquq al-Zaujain

25- Qathr al-Ghais syarah Masail Abi al-Laits

26- Naqawah al-‘Aqidah Mandhumah fi Tauhid

27- al-Nahjah al-Jayyidah syarah Naqawah al-‘Aqidah

28- Suluk al-Jadah syarah Lam’ah al-Mafadah fi bayan al-Jumu’ah wa almu’adah

29- Hilyah al-Shibyan syarah Fath al-Rahman

30- al-Fushush al-Yaqutiyyah ‘ala al-Raudlah al-Bahiyyah fi Abwab al-Tashrifiyyah

31- al-Riyadl al-Fauliyyah

32- Mishbah al-Dhalam’ala Minhaj al-Atamma fi Tabwib al-Hukm

33- Dzariyy’ah al-Yaqin ‘ala Umm al-Barahin fi al-Tauhid

34- al-Ibriz al-Daniy fi Maulid Sayyidina Muhammad al-Sayyid al-Adnany

35- Baghyah al-‘Awwam fi Syarah Maulid Sayyid al-Anam

36- al-Durrur al-Bahiyyah fi syarah al-Khashaish al-Nabawiyyah

37- Lubab al-bayyan fi ‘Ilmi Bayyan

38- Tafsir al-Munir  karya moinumental.

Dari kealiman Imam Nawawi, beliau mendapat bermacam-macam gelar. Snouck Hourgronje, misalnya, pernah menggelarinya sebagai Doktor Ketuhanan. Kalangan Intelektual di masanya, pernah menggelarinya sebagai al-Imam wa al-Fahm al-Mudaqqiq (Tokoh dengan pemahaman sangat mendalam). Syaikh Nawawi juga mendapat gelar, al-Sayyid al-‘Ulama al-Hijâz (Tokoh Ulama Hijaz). Sedang yang dimaksud Hijaz di sini ialah Jazirah Arab yang sekarang ini disebut Saudi Arabia. Sedang ulama Indonesia menggelarinya sebagai Bapak Kitab Kuning Indonesia.

Para Murid dari Indonesia

1- KH Mohammad Khalil, Bangkalan, Madura, Jawa Timur.

2- KH Hasyim Asy’ari, Tebuireng, Jombang; bersama KH Wahab Hasbullah mendirikan Nahdlatul Ulama (NU).

3- KH Mahfuzh al-Tarmisi, dari Tremas, Jawa Timur.

4- KH Asy’ari, Bawean, yang diambil mantu oleh Syekh Nawawi dinikahkan dengan putrinya, Nyi Maryam.

5- KH Nahjun, Kampung Gunung, Mauk, Tangerang, yang dijadikan mantunya (cucu).

6- KH Asnawi, Caringin, Labuan (kelak memimpin Sarekat islam di Banten).

7- KH Ilyas, Kragilan, Serang.

8- KH Abdul Ghaffar, Tirtayasa, Serang.

9- KH Tubagus Bakri, Sempur, Purwakarta.

10- KH Mas Muhammad Arsyad Thawil, Serang, yang dibuang Belanda ke Manado, karena peristiwa di Cilegon.

 

Pemakaman

Imam Nawawi al-Bantani meninggalkan kita untuk selama-lamanya pada 25 Syawal 1314 H/1879 M dalam usia 84 tahun. Beliau wafat di Syeib ‘Ali, sebuah kawasan di pinggiran Mekkah, dan dimakamkan di Ma’la, Arab Saudi, dekat makam Siti Khadijah binti Khuwailid. Beberapa tahun setelah beliau wafat, pemerintah Saudi Arabia bermaksud memindahkan makam beliau, namun diurungkan maksudnya, karena jenazah Imam Nawawi al-Bantani dan kain kafannya terlihat masih utuh. Dari situ, maka hingga sekarang, beliau masih dapat diziarahi di makam pekuburan Ma’la Saudi Arabia.

22 thoughts on “Imam Nawawi Banten: Kelahiran, Karya, Murid, Pemakaman

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