Melestarikan Spirit Ibadah Berqurban

Setiap memasuki bulan Dzulhijjah, seputar 8-11, kita berkesempatan ke semangat berkurban. Yaitu semangat mendekat diri kepada Allah seperti diungkap dalam sejarah, baik ke masa Nabi Adam a.s, masa Nabi Ibrahim a.s. maupun masa Nabi Muhammad saw. Pada tiga masa bersejarah itu, semangat berkurban terbaca jelas spiritnya.

Masa Kehidupan Awal
Kurban dalam sejarah manusia terjadi sejak kehidupan yang paling awal, pada saat manusia terbilang sedikit. Dari informasi Al-Qur’an Surah al-Maidah/5:27 diungkap, bahwa kurban merupakan solusi ketika dalam keluarga Pak Adam a.s. ada persoalan yang menyangkut hidup mati, yang menyentuh keimanan bersama. Kurban di pada masa itu merupakan sarana manusia mendekat diri kepada Allah swt. Kurban pada masa awal itu asal-usulnya berangkat dari suatu fakta, biasaan yang terjadi pada manusia dalam kehidupan awal. Seperti diketahui umum, bahwa dalam perkawinan dengan Ibu Hawa, keluarga Nabi Adam as selalu dianugerahi keturunan kembar laki-perempuan di setiap melahirkan. Maka sebagai langkah lanjut, ketika putera puteri kembar keluarga Pak Adam a.s.itu sudah berusia dewasa ada ketebtuan khas bagj pernikahannya. Polanya sesuai dengan sejarah manusia ketika itu, yaitu pasangan laki wanita dijodohkan pada lawan jenis secara selang-seling. Demikianlah aturan yang terus berlaku pada putera-puteri Adam Hawa, sejalan dengan ketentuan syarak yang ditetapkan pada masanya.
Namun, ketika memasuki giliran pernikahan di masa Qobil dan Habil, Qobil tidak mau pasangan wanita yang lahir bersamanya itu dikawini oleh Habil. Qobil tetap ngotot dalam pendiriannya.
Dalam menghadapi kondisi yang rumit pada masanya, Pak Adam as membuat kesepakatan solusi yang mesti dikakukan di zamannya bahwa Qabil serta Habil mesti sama berkurban (bertaqarrub kepada Allah), lalu perhatikan nanti siapa dari nanda yang qurbannya nanti yang diterima Allah. Solusi bagi keduanya dipatuhi, masing-masing sama berkurban. Qobil, yang produktif dalam bidang pertanian berkurban dengan barang-barang hasil pertanian, sedang Habil yang aktif di bidang peternakan berkurban dengan kambing kibas dari peternakan yang dimilikinya yang ditunaikannha dengan ikhlas. Bagaimana hasil keputusan akhir kurban? Hasilnya ternyata bahwa qurban Habillah yang diterima Allah Swt.

Masa Nabi Ibrahim a.s
Pada masa Nabi Ibrahim a.s. kurban yang diterima juga berupa kambing. Hanya alur peristiwanya menggetarkan dada umat dari ujian keimanannya. Sebab yang awal proses kurbannya dalam mimpi Nabi Ibrahim a.s. yang diberi informasi lewat mimpi yang benar (shadiqah).
Peristiwanya begitu menegangkan tapi betapa sulitpun tetap dilakujan, karena menyentuh urusan nyawa putera kesayangan Nabi Ibrahim a.s., Ismail a.s.

Peristiwa yang pada intinya berisi ujian keimanan tingkat tinggi itu diakhiri dengan jelasnya, bahwa kurban yang dimaksud tak lain akhirnya adalah kambing kibas yang dipersembahkan oleh sang Pencipta melalui Malaikat Jibril a.s.
Tegasnya, kurban yang diterima berupa kambing, sedang maksud ujiannya adalah termasuk ujian keimanan dalam tingkat yang tinggi, bagi Nabi Allah a.s.

Masa Nabi Muhammad saw
Kurban pada masa Nabi saw, serupa dengan jenis kurban sebelumnya. Namun semakin lebih nyata detailnya.Kurban kambing kibas atau yang serupa dengan itu untuk tiap orang, juga bisa berupa sapi, atau kerbau, atau unta untuk kurban 7 orang.
Nabi Muhammad saw sendiri setiap tahun berkurban dengan kambing kibas putih, gagah, bertanduk 2 ekor; satu ekor dikorbankan untuk anggota keluarga sedang yang seekor lagi dengan niat kurban bagi umatnya terutama kali kalangan orang miskin dan orang fakir.

Dari paparan singkat di atas jelaslah bahwa kurban merupakan peristiwa sejarah. Syariatnya mengajak umat untuk mendekat kepada Allah lewat penyembelihan hewan kurban, sedang nilainya adalah menantang setiap orang beriman untuk benar-benar selalu beriman yang andal yaitu yang selalu memiliki bukti konkret dari setiap buah pernyataan aktualisasi keimanannya. Bagaimana dengan kita? (Erfan S).

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