Salat Anak Kita; Bagaimana Mengontrolnya?

Salat lima waktu adalah ibadah wajib. Muslim laki-laki atau perempuan yang sudah mukallaf, dikenai kewajiban (fardhu ‘ain) melakukannya. Bahkan, untuk kehati-hatian dan agar bisa dilaksanakan dengan baik, sejak masih kecil anak-anak kita sudah ditantang untuk diajak salat bersama. Kepada kedua orang tua, diamanatkan salat ini.

Dasar kewajiban salat

Muruu Awlaadakum Bish Shalaati wahum Abnaa-u Sab’i Siniina wadhribuuhum ‘Alaiha wahum Abnaa-u ‘Asyri Siniina. Artinya: ‘Suruhlah anak-anak kalian melaksanakan salat ketika mereka berumur 7 tahun, dan pukullah mereka (bagi mendidik itu) ketika mereka sudah berusia 10 tahun.’

Hadis di atas berisi perintah tentang wajib salat. Pengenalan salat, yang merupakan hak Tuhan itu, telah harus diteladankan kepada anak kita sejak kecil. Yaitu, paling tidak sejak anak berusia 7 tahun. Ketentuan tujuh tahun, batas pengenalan paling lambat; bisa saja dilakukan sebelum itu.

Jadi pada saat anak sudah berusia 7 tahun, ajakan melaksanakan salat bagi anak sudah layak dimulai. Setingkat kelas I Sekolah Dasar/Madrasah Ibtidaiyah, anak sudah layak dikenalkan dengan salat. Tentu, informasi ini bisa saja salat itu dimulai sedari TK, di waktu anak berusia sekitar 4 atau 5 tahun. Namun, di ketika berusia 10 tahun anak juga belum melaksanakan salat, maka pemukulan yang mendidik diperkenankan untuk tetap mendorong anak-anak melakukan tugas salat.

Dari situ maka praktek salat adalah amaliah yang harus dilaksanakan. Dan untuk pelak- sanaannya, perlu melalukan pendidikan salat bagi anak-anak kita.

Dari sini timbul pertanyaan, bagaimanakah pelaksanaan salat dari anak-anak kita? Sudahkah kita memperhatikan salat anak sampai ke praktik pelaksanaannya sehari-hari? Dan benarkah anak-anak kita sudah menunaikan salatnya sampai lima kali dalam sehari-semalam dan nyata mereka melaksanakan salat itu?

Dari pengamatan terhadap anak-anak kita yang diajarkan agama di sekolah dasar, juga di madrasah ibtidaiyah, dan kemudian kita check mereka yang mengaji di banyak mushalla, pelaksanaan salat lengkap 5 waktu anak kita banyak dipertanyakan.

Dari pengamatan mengorek data para peserta pelatihan PLPG diperoleh informasi, bahwa jumlah anak kita yang salat lima waktunya lengkap, masih dalam jumlah yang mengkhawatirkan. Walaupun tidak bisa dipukul-rata, namun jumlah mereka belumĀ  banyak, yaitu di bawah 50%, bahkan ada yang ekstrim mengatakan di bawah 25%.

Pengajaran Salat

Salat adalah tugas harian setiap muslim. Orang-orang IslamĀ  yang sudah mukallaf, sudah cukup usianya, diwajibkan salat. Indikatornya, kalau laki-laki sudah pernah bermimpi basah dari alat vitalnya, sedang jika perempuan sudah pernah datang darah haid yang keluar dari farajnya. Begitu indikator ini sudah dialaminya, maka mereka sama berkewajiban melaksanakan salat lima waktu itu.

Salat seperti dimaklumi adalah suatu aktivitas. Aktivitasnya dimulai dengan takbir dan diakhiri dengan salam, dengan syarat-syarat yang tertentu. Persyaratan utama shalat, selain mempunyai wudhu adalah kondisi pelaku salat itu sudah suci. Yaitu suci badan, pakaian, dan tempat dari kotoran atau najis. Jadi pada saat melakukan salat kondisi muslim yang melakukannya harus dalam keadaan bersih dari najis.

Sebagai ibadah mahdhah maka salat itu dilakukan selain dengan lisan, juga dilakukan dengan perbuatan. Sebagai ungkapan lisan, sejak awal sampai akhir, banyak bacaan yang dilafalkan ketika melakukan salat. Sejak doa iftitah, surah al-fatihah, bacaan rukuk, bacaan sujud, duduk iftirasy, bacaan sujud, bacaan ketika duduk di antara dua sujud, bacaan ketika tahyat awal, bacaan ketika tahyat akhir, dan bacaan yang selalu dilafalkan ketika takbir intiqal (perpindahan di antara aktivitas salat satu dengan yang lain).

Bagi yang baru melakukan salat, bacaan salat ini selain dikenalkan, dibaca ulang, juga perlu dibiasakan. Ketika mengenalkan, karena lafalnya berbahasa Arab, maka faktor open, tidak bisa ditinggalkan. Sejak dari pelafalan yang tepat, fasih dan tepat, lafal ini perlu didrill, dilatih berulang-ulang. Dengan mengulang-ulang sehingga menjadi kebiasaan maka lafal salat mudah dikuasai, sehingga salat sudah menjadi reflek dari perbuatan kita. JIka sudah demikian, maka salat itu sudah menjadi lancar. Atas dasar itu, banyak cara yang mesti dilakukan.

Selain melatih bacaan secara berulang-ulang hingga menjadi kebiasaan, salat menuntut ketelatenan. Pengajarnya perlu ketelitian dan ketekunan mengajarkan salat kepada anak-anak kita. Maka dari itu, sering timbul pertimbangan, bahwa yang banyak harus terlibat dalam pendidikan salat anak adalah para Ibu, karena sang Ibulah yang dekat dengan anak-anaknya.

Selain mengajarkan pelafalan, pendidik juga perlu mengajarkan perbuatan (af’al)salat. Tentu berbeda menjelaskannya, antara satu salat dengan salat yang lain. Misalnya, antara salat zhuhur dengan salat ashar, empat rakaat, yang beda niatnya. Antara salat maghrib dan isyak, yang beda rakaat dan niatnya. Akhirnya di antara semua salat yang berbeda dangan salat subuh, dari segi jumlah rakaatnya, niatnya, juga kemungkinan menggunakan bacaan qunut bagi yang menerapkannya.

Mengajarkan salat tidak cukup dengan sekali-dua perjumpaan. Salat itu diajarkan sejak mengucapkan lafalnya; menerapkan gerak geriknya; juga menyelesaikan setiap kali mengajarkannya. Dengan seringnya mengajarkan salat dengan baik sampai selesai, maka salat anak-anak kita dapat dikerjakan sampai selesai tuntas. Dari situ, dengan pengulangan yang cukup, maka salat akhirnya menjadi kebiasaan harian.

Salat tanpa pembiasaan bisa terlupakan

Seperti aktivitas yang lain, salat juga bisa lupa. Salat seperti dimaklumi, merupakan akti vitas yang dikerjakan tidak jauh dari pekerjaan-pekerjaan atau tugas-tugas di dalam kehidupan. Ketika siang hari, bisa jadi salat itu dilakukan di sela-sela nonton tivi. Atau ketika kerja di kantor, atau ketika melakukan aktivitas bisnis. kesibukan yang menumpuk kerap menjadikan salat itu, nyaris terlewat, atau tiba-tiba sudah habis waktunya. Maka terbiasa mengerjakan di awal waktunya, atau konsisten dengan aktivitas salat dapat mempermudah mengerjakannya. Apalagi bagi muslim yang tempat bekerjanya dengan dengan tempat beribadah, yang selalu ada panggilan salat, maka salat lebih mudah menjalankannya. Dengan begitu maka lupa salat bisa diatasi dengan baik.

Teknik Mengontrol Salat

Membiasakan anak salat lima waktu, tidak hanya tugas orang tua. Yang juga baik juga dipikirkan, bagi orang tua yang nyaris lupa tidak mengajarkan salat anaknya, salat itu jangan hanya dibebankan kepada guru agama di sekolah. Atau juga jangan hanya dibebankan kepada guru ngaji. Pembiasaan salat, baik dikontrol bersama-sama. Orang tua, guru agama di sekolah, dan guru ngaji dapat bersama-sama mengatur kerjasama dalam mengontrol kemantapan salat lima waktu anak-anak kita.

Misalnya, ada kartu kontrol yang diparaf bersama: antara guru, ortu, dan guru ngaji. Kartu kontrol salat itu bukan sekedar pekerjaan sambilan saja, melainkan dijadikan pekerjaan juang kita di jalan Allah untuk menyelamatkan anak-anak kita dalam tidak melakukan salat. Dengan keaktifan ketiga-tiganya dalam mengontrol aktivitas anak, maka salat menjadi aktivitas yang benar-benar dijalankan oleh anak-anak kita.

Ada juga contoh lain: kontrol yang baik. Misalnya, di beberapa pondok pesantren ada kartu salat yang wajib dimiliki oleh para siswa di samping kartu siswa. Setiap kali melaksanakan salat berjamaah, maka kartu salat itu diserahkan kepada imam, atau ustaz atau ustazah yang mempunyai tugas mengeontrol salat. Dengan cara seperti itu, maka salat dapat menjadi kebiasaan yang terkontrol dengan baik sampai menjadi kebiasaan harian yang dikerjanak secara istikamah atau konsisten.

Kontrol Massal

Membiasakan diri salat jamaah. Kalau tadi dikontrol di antara para penanggung jawab pendidikan baik orang tua, guru sekolah, maupun guru ngaji. Maka pengontrol salat yang bersifat massal, adalah masyarakat. Terutama ketika salat itu menjadi kebutuhan yang sudah dilaksanakan secara terus menerus secara berjamaah baik di masjid maupun di mushalla. Dengan biasa berjamaah, antara jamaah yang satu dengan yang lain akan saling menyapa: bersalaman, bersaudara, yang saling tahu kehadiran masing- masing. Pelaksanaan salat yang senantiasa berjamaah memudahkan kita terus hadir dalam aktivitas yang saling diketahui oleh jamaah satu dengan jamaah lain. Kekompak annya menjadi pengontrol massal yang saling tahu antara saudara satu dengan sau- dara yang lain.

Maka tidak mustahil, hingga akhir hayat, sesama muslim akan tahu nasib saudaranya yang melaksanakan secara berjamaah yang biasaan selalu salat bersama. Bahkan, di akhir hayat setiap jamaah salat pun dapat diketahuinya dengan jelas. Kontrol sosial, merupakan aktivitas menarik dalam mengungkap kekompakan salat. Bagaimana menurut Anda? Semoga bermanfaat (Erfan Soebahar).

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